Giovanni Caselli – Pantelegraph and Fax Inventor
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While teaching physics at the University of Florence, he focused his research on the transmission of image and simple words. Working on similar projects at the time were Alexander Bain and Frederick Bakewell. Caselli’s largest challenge was working on synchronization between the transmitter and receiver of the machine.
Caselli’s system was different from that of Bain and Bakewell‘s was it used a regulating clock to help the sending and receiving mechanism working together – synchronization was the major problem experienced by other facsimile inventors at the time (ironically, Alexander Bain‘s experience was primarily as a clockmaker).
The pantelegraph worked by making an image with non-conductive ink onto a piece of tin foil. As a stylus passes over it the tin foil, it lightly touches it, passing with parallel scans slightly apart (similar to the technology of faxing today that scans line by line).
The pantelegraph then conducts electricity where there is ink and no ink on the page. The signal is transmitted along telegraph lines (or similar system). The receiver on the opposite end then takes the signal and writes ink onto the paper.
In 1860 Napoleon saw a demonstration of the pantelegraph and paced orders for the service to work within the French national telegraph network. With the help of Napoleon (both with access to the telegraph network as well as financial), the pantelegraph was successfully tested over 800km between Paris and Marseille. Through French law, it was enacted in 1864 that it would be officially accepted, with operations starting in 1865 between Paris and Lyon, extended to Marseille in 1867.
- Alexander Bain – Experimental Fax Machine between 1843 and 1846
- Arthur Korn – Developed Fax Machine for Transmitting Photographs
- Edouard Belin – Inventor of the Bélinographe
- Frederick Bakewell – Improved Bain’s Facsimile Machine
- Giovanni Caselli – Inventor of the Pantelegraph. Sent images 800km across telegraph wires 9 years before Alexander Graham Bell’s Telephone Patent
- Herbert E. Ives – Sent first color fax
- Richard H. Ranger – Invented first Transatlantic Radio Fax
- Rudolf Hell – Invented the Hellschreiber
- Shelford Bidwell – Research in the field of “Telephotography”